Theme: Theme: Every breath counts – Stop TB now
Conference Series LLC LTD welcomes you to attend the "4th World Congress on Advancements in Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases" during April 25-26, 2022 as webinar focusing on the theme “Impact of COVID-19 on Tuberculosis Control across the Globe”. We cordially invite all the participants to share their knowledge and research in the area of Tuberculosis.
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International Conference on Tuberculosis aims to gather doctors, eminent scientists, research scholars, and educationists and professionals to express their views on the latest technologies, trends and concerns in field of Tuberculosis. It focuses on addressing the constant effort being made by scientist and scholars to improve the existing and inventing novel technologies for future.
Tuberculosis 2022 comprise leading keynote speakers, session speakers, poster presenters who presented their advanced research on the topics such as Tuberculosis, Epidemiology of Tuberculosis, Drug discovery and development in tuberculosis, Drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, Tuberculosis and rehabilitation, Nanotechnology approach in tuberculosis, Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, Pulmonary disease and lung cancer, Interstitial lung disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Neonatal lung disease, Lung infections, Lung transplantation, Diagnosis and treatment of lung disease, Current and future trends in tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is a communicable disease, caused by the infectious bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It affects the lungs and other parts of the body (brain, spine). People around the world suffer mainly from tuberculosis because it is an airborne pathogen, so it can spread easily. It is classified into latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. In latent tuberculosis, the bacteria remain inactive in the body. In active tuberculosis, the bacteria reproduce in the body, leading to serious infectious diseases. One third of the population worldwide also has latent tuberculosis, 10% of the chances of latent tuberculosis becoming active due to various conditions, such as malnutrition, low immunity and smoking. Active tuberculosis occurs mainly in people with HIV / AIDS and smokers. About 15 to 20% of active tuberculosis occurs outside the lungs. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurs mainly in people with low immune systems and HIV. 8% of the population is affected by tuberculosis due to smoking.
Epidemiology is a branch of science that makes effective ideas for preventing disease and provides precautions for patients' suffering. More than a quarter of the world's population is affected by Mycobacterium infections. Tuberculosis is a widely spread disease after HIV / AIDS. Tuberculosis was on the rise in 2003, gradually decreasing over the years, and during 2007, most people worldwide were affected by tuberculosis. In developed countries, tuberculosis is relatively less known. Tuberculosis is generally referred to as an urban disease. Tuberculosis is mainly caused in geriatrics and low immunity. Most M. bacterium infection is not contagious. About 95% of infections are asymptomatic.
In history, drugs are discovered using active ingredients from ancient remedies, but nowadays diseases are controlled at the molecular and physiological level. The healthy approach to new drug discovery also measures the reduction in the prolonged clinical development of new drugs. This involves details about pre-clinical and clinical tuberculosis testing. Antibiotics have become scarce due to multiple drug resistance, the main cause of tuberculosis. The discovery of a new drug uses the inactive bacteria to develop a new drug for tuberculosis. Mycobacterium is resistant to most antibiotics. To achieve the shortest duration of therapy, it is expected to destroy the mycobacterial subpopulation.
Track 04: Drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a tuberculous infection caused by infectious bacteria resistant to treatment with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Insufficient medication administration is the main cause of drug resistance. Some infectious tuberculosis bacteria are also resistant to second-line drugs, known as TB extensively resistant to drugs. At the beginning of treatment with antibiotics, some strains of the tuberculosis bacteria produced resistance to specific drugs through genetic changes. Multi-drug resistance requires second-line drugs, which are less effective and more active. 9% of MDR-TB are resistant to one of the group's drugs under XDR-TB. The increase in the level of resistance in the tuberculosis strain causes complications for public health in the control of tuberculosis.
Track 05: Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection
Tuberculosis is an opportunistic infection and easily affected by people with HIV. HIV weakens the immune system, which increases the chance of being affected by tuberculosis. A person with HIV / tuberculosis is called an HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. The conditions become severe in the case of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis that is difficult to cure and causes an increase in mortality. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by tuberculous granulomas is linked to HIV viremia, which leads to the cause of the disease. Latent infection of untreated TB can be easily activated for TB disease in patients with HIV due to their low immunity. If left untreated, it can lead to death. TB is more difficult to diagnose in an HIV-positive patient than in a person with only TB. People with HIV-TB co-infection are treated with antiretroviral therapy and anti-tuberculosis drugs. The advantages of early antiretrovirals include the tendency to reduce mortality.
Track 06: Tuberculosis and rehabilitation
Rehabilitation is about restoring someone to their normal lifestyle. Rehabilitation plays an important role in the tuberculosis patient because of mediation and the course of therapy during treatment. The side effects of TB medication are extensive, so it requires extensive rehabilitation or therapy. There are many side effects during the course of the medication, which causes depression. Due to the pressure faced during treatment and post-treatment makes the patient weak, so rehabilitation one by one, counseling after the course allows them to deal with external pressure.
Track 07: Nanotechnology approach in tuberculosis
Nanotechnology is duplicating matter on an atomic scale. Nanotechnology refers to the construction of the structure at the micro level. The development of new drugs decreases resistance and drug interaction. In recent years, much research has been done on the development of nanotechnology-based therapy to replace the administration of antibiotics. Different animal models are tired of developing antibiotics with polymer technology. Nanoparticles are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials that are natural or synthetic. They can easily dissolve in cells. Polymeric nanoparticles represent as bioadhesives in the gastrointestinal tract. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid [PLGA] is a copolymer accepted by the administration of food and medication for therapeutic purposes. Nano beads have a slow and sustained release of particles. The introduction of nanoparticles allows to reduce side effects, several drugs can be encapsulated in a matrix, of high constancy.
Track 08: Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis
The diagnosis of tuberculosis is made by taking the biological sample from the patient. Other tests are carried out to identify latent tuberculosis or active tuberculosis. Other tests include chest radiography, sputum sample and blood tests. The most common diagnostic test is the PPD tuberculin test, in which a small amount of bacteria is extracted. Direct observation therapy treatment allows a healthcare professional to observe the medication until the course is completed. People with low immune systems are affected by active tuberculosis. If not treated well, it affects all lungs and causes complications in the body. The nucleic acid amplification test and the adenosine deaminase test allow for rapid cure of TB. Treatments include medications, chemoprophylaxis decreases the risk of active tuberculosis in patients with latent tuberculosis. Vaccination and prevention are the best way to prevent tuberculosis.
Track 09: Pulmonary disease and lung cancer
Lung disease is the common medical condition worldwide. Lung disease affects the organ that makes it difficult for animals to breathe. Obstructive lung disease causes obstruction of the airway due to inflammation in the lungs. Restrictive lung disease causes loss of stretching and expansion of the lungs. Chronic respiratory disease is the long-term disease in which inflammation appears in the lungs and treatment is present to reduce the passage. There is currently no solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung diseases mainly affect the bronchi and small branches of the trachea. Death from cancer includes lung cancer, where most men and women are affected. Lung cancer can affect any part of the lung, but it mainly affects the air sac where cells multiply. Treatment of lung cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking.
Track 10: Interstitial lung disease
Interstitial lung disease is a circular term for a broad group of diseases that develop fibrosis of the lungs. Makes it difficult to breathe. It is caused due to frequent exposure to asbestos, rheumatoid arthritis. The lung scar is irreversible and lung transplantation is the solution for interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease in children is called childhood interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung diseases are used to differentiate from obstructive respiratory disease. Our body produces a lot of tissue to prevent injury. Interstitial lung disease along with pulmonary sarcoidosis affected about 1.2 million people. By inhaling bacteria-contaminated air, fungi cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Replacing the normal lung with scar tissue causes a decrease in oxygen capacity. Chest radiography is the initial step to detect the disease. Whereas, in interstitial lung disease, tissues are stored in thickening forms that lead to a narrow passage of air.
Track 11: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an obstructive lung disease caused the short breathing. It is a developing disease that hinders basic day-to-day activities. The medication used for treatment are bronchodilators that allow the air passage to widen. The progressive disease includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma. Chronic bronchitis is a frequent cough for 3 months a year and continued for 3 years. Cough is the main condition of COPD. Emphysema is the presence of air or gas in the tissues. Smoking, air pollution; genetics are some of the causes of COPD. The spirometer is an instrument used to detect the disease. Shortness of breath, wheezing and frequent coughing indicate the presence of COPD. Smoking is one of the main elements of the cause of COPD. COPD conference develops new pulmonary therapy ideas and techniques
Track 12: Neonatal lung disease
Neonatal lung disease is more common in premature babies, preferably before the 3rd trimester, due to the lack of produced surfactant, which causes problems in the expansion of the lungs. Some of the lung diseases that affect the newborn are bronchopulmonary dysplasia, childhood interstitial lung disease, meconium aspiration syndrome and pneumonia. Surfactant replacement therapy is used in babies to cure respiratory distress syndrome. Lung diseases are more common in neonates. The persistence of the ductus arteriosus is the main cause of toxicity and death in premature babies. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common viral lung infection in babies and premature infants. The broad knowledge of the pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases and better understanding has allowed the development of safe therapies that are more effective for active and chronic diseases. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children in developing countries.
Track 13: Lung infections
Lung infection is caused by attacks by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses commonly called pneumonia. Pneumonia causes inflammation in the alveoli of the lungs diseases . Dry cough, fever, chest pain are some of the symptoms of pneumonia. About 7% of the population is dying from lung infection. Pneumonia can also occur through mixed infections, such as bacteria and viruses, in which 45% of children and 15% of adults are affected. Vaccines are used to prevent infection. It occurs mainly in geriatric people. Pneumonia in children is due to cough, difficulty breathing at a rapid respiratory rate and low level of consciousness. The diagnosis depends on the condition and the external examination. Chest X-ray, blood test and sputum test confirm the condition. 7% of the population is affected by lung infection.
Track 14: Lung transplantation
Lung transplantation is a medical surgery in which the infected lung is partially or totally replaced by a new lung donated by a donor. A living donor can donate a single lobe. Lung transplantation occurs only when any other function is not affecting the patient. Transplantation improves breathing capacity and the person must take immunity suppressing drugs for the rest of his life. The lung transplant is done when there is an inability to take oxygen. Most lung transplants are done for COPD. According to the most recent data on organ procurement and the transplant network, some 37,000 lung transplants occurred over the course of 1988. The lung transplant survival rate increased in a few years and the survival rate increased by 80%. in a single year of transplantation. The severity of the disease cannot be transplanted due to specific reasons such as HIV, hepatitis, congestive heart failure and liver disease. There are certain conditions for the donor due to the required character of the recipient. The living donor also has some affections. Transplantation is the last option for cure lung failure. Various tests and qualification criteria occur for the transplant. The immunosuppressant is administered after the lung transplant to protect the new lung.
Track 15: Diagnosis and treatment of lung disease
During breathing, oxygen is inhaled, where it is then transferred to the bloodstream. In addition, a third of the United States population suffers from lung disease. Smokers are mainly affected by lung diseases and several therapies are also administered to control smoking. The spirometer is the instrument used to detect the functioning of the lung. It is used to check the amount of air entering the lungs and the amount of air leaving. The spirometer is used to detect COPD and monitor treatment. The diagnosis of pulmonary diseases can be carried out through tests such as biopsy, blood test, bronchoscopy, sputum test and computed tomography. Many types of treatment are provided to expand the shortened passage and control symptoms to develop better health. Treatment depends on the cause of the disease and the patient's health. The cure for lung disease includes medication, surgery and oxygen therapy and lifestyle changes. Smoking cessation allows controlling the disease. Bronchodilators are used to treat lung diseases that relax the muscles around the air sacs, shorten breathing and make breathing easier. pulmonary therapies improve health and change lifestyle.
Tuberculosis has shown a higher mortality rate than HIV because the bacterium undergoes genetic mutation and forms resistance to present effective antibiotics. In 2013, WHO detected resistance to multiple drugs from 480,000 cases. There has been great success in effective preventive care, infection care and treatment techniques. The annual mortality rate has declined since 1990. A sequence of international clinical trials by the British Medical Council's research, a four-drug regimen was given for use in a newly diagnosed tuberculosis patient. In the latest research, vaccine techniques or new drug development are used to reduce the risk in lately infected people. Despite increasing resources for tuberculosis, only 20 clinical trials of drugs and 12 vaccines are performed.
Importance and factors in the scope of tuberculosis and lung disease conference 2022.
Tuberculosis is the most common disease of death worldwide. It is also the leading cause of death in people with HIV / AIDS. In 2017, the highest number of new cases of tuberculosis occurred in Southeast Asia and in specific regions of the west, followed by the African region. The medicine Pretomanid was developed by the TB Alliance and approved by the US FDA, which is now used to treat XDR-TB. The global health community has set a goal to end TB, the mortality rate by 2035 up to 90%. In 2019, WHO released a multisectoral accountability framework to increase progress to end TB. The world market for anti-tuberculosis therapies was valued at around 1.2 million in 2018 and is expected to reach a value of US $ 1.5 million in 2024. These therapeutic treatments contain first and second line and multiple drug treatments. The TB market is also witnessing growth with technological developments in the areas of genomics and proteomics. Most of the funding from developed countries goes to Asian countries. Mortality is high, due to several factors such as HIV and diabetes leading to tuberculosis. Asia-Pacific has the exception of profitable growth in relation to the high burden of tuberculosis and the rapid growth of diseases. The upward trend in TB growth in the southeast. Asian countries aim to eliminate tuberculosis by 2025, which is expected to act as a major role in the growth of the Asia-Pacific market over the next period.
Source: Mordor Intelligence
Lung diseases present significant challenges to the health system worldwide and are the main contributors to the morbidity and mortality of the entire population. The global market for respiratory drugs is estimated at a 5.9% CAGR over the next period of 2018-2024. The respiratory medication market is analyzed based on the application and the regional segments. North America, Europe, East Pacific have the largest share in the global respiratory drugs market, where 60% of the market is made by North Americans, and the USA are the main drug production markets. The Asia Pacific breathing apparatus market is expected to show 6.5% CAGR in the next period. Medical needs not met in emerging markets, such as India, are expected to serve these markets as opportunities for future growth. The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda was adopted by world leaders in 2015 at a historic UN summit in New York and went into action on January 1, 2016. The plan is to achieve 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 goals by the year 2030. Lung disease occurs as a result of an obstruction within a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain. The fat deposits lining the vessel .
- Epidemiology of tuberculosis
- Drug discovery and development in tuberculosis
- Drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
- Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection
- Tuberculosis and rehabilitation
- Nanotechnology approach in tuberculosis
- Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis
- Pulmonary disease and lung cancer
- Interstitial lung disease
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Neonatal lung disease
- Lung infections
- Lung transplantation
- Diagnosis and treatment of lung disease
- Current and future trends in tuberculosis
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